აშშ-ის ეროვნული პარკები

მასალა ვიკიპედიიდან — თავისუფალი ენციკლოპედია
გადასვლა: ნავიგაცია, ძიება

აშშ-ს 58 დაცული რეგიონიეროვნული პარკი აქვს, რომელთაც მართავს ეროვნული პარკების სამსახური, აშშ-ის საშინაო საქმეთა დეპარტამენტის სააგენტოს ნაწილი. ეროვნული პარკები იქმნება აშშ-ის კონგრესის აქტით. პირველი ეროვნული პარკი, იელოუსტოუნი, კანონით დაამტკიცა პრეზიდენტმა ულისე გრანტმა 1872 წელს, რომელსაც მოჰყვა სეკვოია და იოზემიტი 1890 წელს. 1916 წელს ორგანული აქტით შეიქმნა ეროვნული პარკების სამსახური ”პანორამის, ბუნებრივი და ისტორიული ობიექტებისა და მათში ცხოველთა სამყაროს შესანარჩუნებლად, და მათთვის იმგვარი პირობების შესქმნელად, რომელიც განაპირობებს მათ ხელუხლებად შენახვას მომავალი თაობების სიამოვნებისთვის."[1] ამ ეროვნული პარკების რესურსების დიდი ნაწილი მანამდეც დაცული იყო, როგორც ეროვნული მონუმენტები პრეზიდენტის ანტიკურობის აქტით, სანამ მათ კონგრესი სტატუსს მიანიჭებდა. შვიდი ეროვნული პარკი დაწყვილებულია ეროვნულ რეზერვთან, რომელთაგან ექვსი ალასკაშია. მათი ადმინისტრირება ერთად ხდება, თუმცა ისინი ცალკე განიხილება. ყველაზე ახალი ეროვნული პარკია დიდი ქვიშიანი დიუნები, დაარსებული 2004 წელს.

ეროვნული პარკი აქვს ოცდაშვიდ შტატს და რამდენიმე ცალკეულ ადმინისტრაციულ ერთეულს, როგორიცაა ამერიკის სამოა და აშშ-ის ვირჯინის კუნძულები. ალასკასა და კალიფორნიას აქვს ყველაზე მეტი (თითოეულს რვა), მათ მოჰყვება იუტა ხუთით და კოლორადო ოთხით. უდიდესი ეროვნული პარკია ვრანგელი - წმინდა ელია (32,000 კმ2), მას მოჰყვება სამი პარკი ალასკაში; ყველაზე მცირეა ჰოტ სპრინგზი (24 კმ2). ეროვნული პარკებით დაცული ტერიტორია მოიცავს დაახლ. 210,000 კმ2-ს.[2] ყველაზე მეტი სტუმარი ჰყავს გრეიტ სმოკი მაუნტინზს, ცხრა მილიონი ტურისტით 2008 წელს, რომელსაც მოჰყვება გრანდ კანიონი, ოთხი მილიონით.[3] თოთხმეტ ეროვნულ პარკს მსოფლიო მემკვიდრეობის სტატუსი აქვს.[4]

ეროვნული პარკები[რედაქტირება | წყაროს რედაქტირება]

სახელი Photo მდებარეობა შექმნის თარიღი[2][5] ფართობი[2] Description
აკადია SealHarborANP.jpg მენი
44°21′N 68°13′W / 44.35° ჩ. გ. 68.21° დ. გ. / 44.35; -68.21 (აკადია)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 47,389.67 აკრი (191.8 kм²) ფარავს რა მაუნტ დესერტ აილენდის ძირითად ნაწილსა და სხვა სანაპირო კუნძულებს, აკადია იცავას ატლანტის სანაპიროს უმაღლეს მთას, გრანიტის პიკებს, ოკეანის სანაპიროებს, ტყეებსა და ტბებს. აქ არის მტკნარი წყლის, შესართავის, ტყისა და მოქცევების habitats.[6]
ამერიკის სამოა Ofu Beach NPS.jpg ამერიკის სამოა
14°15′S 170°41′W / 14.25° ს. გ. 170.68° დ. გ. / -14.25; -170.68 (ამერიკის სამოა)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 9,000.00 აკრი (36.4 kм²) The southernmost national park is on three Samoan islands and protects coral reefs, rainforests, volcanic mountains, and white beaches. The area is also home to Samoan peoples, flying foxes, brown boobies, sea turtles, and 900 species of fish.[7]
თაღები Delicate arch sunset.jpg იუტა
38°41′N 109°34′W / 38.68° ჩ. გ. 109.57° დ. გ. / 38.68; -109.57 (Arches)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 76,518.98 აკრი (309.7 kм²) This site features more than 2,000 natural sandstone arches, including the Delicate Arch. In a desert climate millions of years of erosion have led to these structures, and the arid ground has life-sustaining soil crust and potholes, natural water-collecting basins. Other geologic formations are stone columns, spires, fins, and towers.[8]
Badlands 2003-10-15 1600x900 south dakota badlands.jpg სამხრეთი დაკოტა
43°45′N 102°30′W / 43.75° ჩ. გ. 102.50° დ. გ. / 43.75; -102.50 (Badlands)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 242,755.94 აკრი (982.4 kм²) The Badlands are a collection of buttes, pinnacles, spires, and grass prairies. It has the world's richest fossil beds from the Oligocene epoch, and there is wildlife including bison, bighorn sheep, black-footed ferrets, and swift foxes.[9]
Big Bend Santa Elena Canyon.jpg ტეხასი
29°15′N 103°15′W / 29.25° ჩ. გ. 103.25° დ. გ. / 29.25; -103.25 (Big Bend)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 801,163.21 აკრი (3,242.2 kм²) Named for the Bend of the Rio Grande along the US–Mexico border, this park includes a part of the Chihuahuan Desert. A wide variety of Cretaceous and Tertiary fossils as well as cultural artifacts of Native Americans exist within its borders.[10]
ბისკეინი Biscayne NP snorkeling.jpg ფლორიდა
25°39′N 80°05′W / 25.65° ჩ. გ. 80.08° დ. გ. / 25.65; -80.08 (Biscayne)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 172,924.07 აკრი (699.8 kм²) Located in Biscayne Bay, this park at the north end of the Florida Keys has four interrelated marine ecosystems: mangrove forest, the Bay, the Keys, and coral reefs. Threatened animals include the West Indian Manatee, American crocodile, various sea turtles, and peregrine falcon.[11]
Black Canyon of the Gunnison Black canyon gunnison Colorado.jpg კოლორადო
38°34′N 107°43′W / 38.57° ჩ. გ. 107.72° დ. გ. / 38.57; -107.72 (Black Canyon of the Gunnison)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 32,950.03 აკრი (133.3 kм²) The park protects a quarter of the Gunnison River, which has dark canyon walls from the Precambrian era. The canyon has very steep descents, and it is a site for river rafting and rock climbing. The narrow, steep canyon, made of gneiss and schist, is often in shadow, appearing black.[12]
Bryce Canyon Bryce Canyon Hoodoos Amphitheater.jpg იუტა
37°34′N 112°11′W / 37.57° ჩ. გ. 112.18° დ. გ. / 37.57; -112.18 (Bryce Canyon)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 35,835.08 აკრი (145.0 kм²) Bryce Canyon is a giant natural amphitheatre along the Paunsaugunt Plateau. The unique area has hundreds of tall hoodoos formed by erosion. The region was originally settled by Native Americans and later by Mormon pioneers.[13]
Canyonlands Canyonlands Needles.jpg იუტა
38°12′N 109°56′W / 38.2° ჩ. გ. 109.93° დ. გ. / 38.2; -109.93 (Canyonlands)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 337,597.83 აკრი (1,366.2 kм²) This landscape was eroded into canyons, buttes, and mesas by the Colorado River, Green River, and their tributaries, which divide the park into four districts. There are rock pinnacles and other naturally sculpted rock, as well as artifacts from Ancient Pueblo Peoples.[14]
Capitol Reef Cassidy Arch, Capitol Reef National Park.JPG იუტა
38°12′N 111°10′W / 38.20° ჩ. გ. 111.17° დ. გ. / 38.20; -111.17 (Capitol Reef)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 241,904.26 აკრი (979.0 kм²) The park's Waterpocket Fold is a 100-миля (160 kм) monocline that shows the earth's geologic layers. Other natural features are monoliths and sandstone domes and cliffs shaped like the United States Capitol.[15]
კარსლბადის მღვიმეები Carlsbad Interior Formations.jpg ნიუ-მექსიკო
32°10′N 104°26′W / 32.17° ჩ. გ. 104.44° დ. გ. / 32.17; -104.44 (Carlsbad Caverns)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 46,766.45 აკრი (189.3 kм²) Carlsbad Caverns has 117 caves, the longest of which is over 120 миль (190 kм) long. The Big Room is almost 4,000 feet (1,200 м) long, and the caves are home to over 400,000 Mexican Free-tailed Bats and sixteen other species. Above ground are the Chihuahuan Desert and Rattlesnake Springs.[16]
Channel Islands Channel Islands National Park.jpg კალიფორნია
34°01′N 119°25′W / 34.01° ჩ. გ. 119.42° დ. გ. / 34.01; -119.42 (Channel Islands)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 249,561.00 აკრი (1,009.9 kм²) Five of the eight Channel Islands are protected, and half of the park's area is underwater. The islands have a unique Mediterranean ecosystem. They are home to over 2,000 species of land plants and animals, and 145 are unique to them. The islands were originally settled by the Chumash people.[17]
Congaree Congaree swamp.jpg სამხრეთი კაროლინა
33°47′N 80°47′W / 33.78° ჩ. გ. 80.78° დ. გ. / 33.78; -80.78 (Congaree)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 26,545.86 აკრი (107.4 kм²) On the Congaree River, this park is the largest portion of old-growth floodplain forest left in North America. Some of the trees are the tallest in the Eastern US, and the Boardwalk Loop is an elevated walkway through the swamp.[18]
Crater Lake Crater lake oregon.jpg ორეგონი
42°56′N 122°06′W / 42.94° ჩ. გ. 122.1° დ. გ. / 42.94; -122.1 (Crater Lake)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 183,224.05 აკრი (741.5 kм²) Crater Lake lies in the caldera of Mount Mazama formed 7,700 years ago after an eruption. It is the deepest lake in the United States and is known for its blue color and water clarity. There are two islands in the lake, and, with no inlets or outlets, all water comes through precipitation.[19]
Cuyahoga Valley ოჰაიო
41°14′N 81°33′W / 41.24° ჩ. გ. 81.55° დ. გ. / 41.24; -81.55 (Cuyahoga Valley)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 32,860.73 აკრი (133.0 kм²) This park along the Cuyahoga River has waterfalls, hills, trails, and displays about early rural living. The Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath Trail follows the Ohio and Erie Canal, where mules towed canal boats. The park has numerous historic homes, bridges, and structures.[20]
Death Valley Late Precambrian Noonday Formation.jpg კალიფორნია, ნევადა
36°14′N 116°49′W / 36.24° ჩ. გ. 116.82° დ. გ. / 36.24; -116.82 (Death Valley)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 3,372,401.96 აკრი (13,647.6 kм²) Death Valley is the hottest, lowest, and driest place in the United States. There are canyons, colorful badlands, sand dunes, mountains, and over 1000 species of plants in this graben on a fault line. Further geologic points of interest are salt flats, springs, and buttes.[21]
Denali Mount McKinley and Denali National Park Road 2048px.jpg ალასკა
63°20′N 150°30′W / 63.33° ჩ. გ. 150.50° დ. გ. / 63.33; -150.50 (Denali)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 4,740,911.72 აკრი (19,185.8 kм²) Centered around the Mount McKinley, the tallest mountain in North America, Denali is serviced by a single road leading to Wonder Lake. McKinley and other peaks of the Alaska Range are covered with long glaciers and boreal forest. Wildlife includes grizzly bears, Dall sheep, caribou, and gray wolves. [22]
Dry Tortugas Fort-Jefferson Dry-Tortugas.jpg ფლორიდა
24°38′N 82°52′W / 24.63° ჩ. გ. 82.87° დ. გ. / 24.63; -82.87 (Dry Tortugas)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 64,701.22 აკრი (261.8 kм²) The Dry Tortugas on the west end of the Florida Keys are the site of Fort Jefferson, the largest masonry structure in the Western Hemisphere. With most of the park being water, it is the home of coral reefs and shipwrecks and is only accessible by plane or boat.[23]
ევერგლეიდი Everglades National Park cypress.jpg ფლორიდა
25°19′N 80°56′W / 25.32° ჩ. გ. 80.93° დ. გ. / 25.32; -80.93 (Everglades)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 1,508,537.90 აკრი (6,104.8 kм²) The Everglades are the largest subtropical wilderness in the United States. This mangrove ecosystem and marine estuary is home to 36 protected species, including the Florida panther, American crocodile, and West Indian manatee. Some areas have been drained and developed; restoration projects aim to restore the ecology.[24]
Gates of the Arctic GatesofArctic.jpg ალასკა
67°47′N 153°18′W / 67.78° ჩ. გ. 153.30° დ. გ. / 67.78; -153.30 (Gates of the Arctic)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 7,523,897.74 აკრი (30,448.1 kм²) This northernmost park protects part of the Brooks Range and has no park facilities. The land is home to Alaska natives, who have relied on the land and caribou for 11,000 years.[25]
Glacier Goat Haunt Overlook.jpg მონტანა
48°48′N 114°00′W / 48.80° ჩ. გ. 114.00° დ. გ. / 48.80; -114.00 (Glacier)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 1,013,572.41 აკრი (4,101.8 kм²) Part of Waterton Glacier International Peace Park, this park has over 50 remaining glaciers and 130 named lakes under the tall Rocky Mountain peaks. There are historic hotels and a landmark road in this region of rapidly receding glaciers. These mountains, formed by an overthrust, have the world's best sedimentary fossils from the Proterozoic era.[26]
გლასიერ-ბეი GlacierBay3.jpg ალასკა
58°30′N 137°00′W / 58.50° ჩ. გ. 137.00° დ. გ. / 58.50; -137.00 (Glacier Bay)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 3,224,840.31 აკრი (13,050.5 kм²) Glacier Bay has numerous tidewater glaciers, mountains, and fjords. The temperate rainforest and the bay are home to grizzly bears, mountain goats, whales, seals, and eagles. When discovered in 1794 by George Vancouver, the entire bay was covered by ice, but the glaciers have receded over 65 миль (105 kм).[27]
დიდი კანიონი USA 09847 Grand Canyon Luca Galuzzi 2007.jpg არიზონა
36°04′N 112°08′W / 36.06° ჩ. გ. 112.14° დ. გ. / 36.06; -112.14 (Grand Canyon)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 1,217,403.32 აკრი (4,926.7 kм²) The Grand Canyon, carved out by the Colorado River, is 277 миль (446 kм) long, up to 1 mile (1.6 km) deep, and up to 15 миль (24 kм) wide. Millions of years of exposure has formed colorful layers of the Colorado Plateau in mesas and canyon walls.[28]
Grand Teton Teton Range from Glacier View Turnout-closeup.JPG ვაიომინგი
43°44′N 110°48′W / 43.73° ჩ. გ. 110.80° დ. გ. / 43.73; -110.80 (Grand Teton)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 309,994.66 აკრი (1,254.5 kм²) Grand Teton is the tallest mountain in the Teton Range. The park's Jackson Hole valley and reflective piedmont lakes contrast with the tall mountains, which abruptly rise from the glacial sage-covered valley.[29]
Great Basin Stella Lake Great Basin.jpg ნევადა
38°59′N 114°18′W / 38.98° ჩ. გ. 114.30° დ. გ. / 38.98; -114.30 (Great Basin)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 77,180.00 აკრი (312.3 kм²) Based around Wheeler Peak, the Great Basin has 5,000-year-old bristlecone pines, glacial moraines, and the limestone Lehman Caves. It has some of the country's darkest night skies, and there are animal species including Townsend's big-eared bat, Pronghorn, and Bonneville cutthroat trout.[30]
Great Sand Dunes Coloradodunes.jpg კოლორადო
37°44′N 105°31′W / 37.73° ჩ. გ. 105.51° დ. გ. / 37.73; -105.51 (Great Sand Dunes)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 42,983.74 აკრი (173.9 kм²) The tallest dunes in North America are up to 750 feet (230 м) tall and neighbor grasslands, shrublands and wetlands. They were formed by sand deposits of the Rio Grande on the San Luis Valley. The park also has alpine lakes, six 13,000-foot mountains, and ancient forests.[31]
Great Smoky Mountains Fall at Oconaluftee Overlook.JPG ჩრდილოეთი კაროლინა, ტენესი
35°41′N 83°32′W / 35.68° ჩ. გ. 83.53° დ. გ. / 35.68; -83.53 (Great Smoky Mountains)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 521,490.13 აკრი (2,110.4 kм²) The Great Smoky Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains, have a wide range of elevations, making them home to over 400 vertebrate species, 100 tree species, and 5000 plant species. Hiking is the park's main attraction, with over 800 миль (1,300 kм) of trails, including 70 миль (110 kм) of the Appalachian Trail. Other activities are fishing, horseback riding, and visiting some of nearly 80 historic structures.[32]
Guadalupe Mountains Guadalupe Mountains El Capitan 2006.jpg ტეხასი
31°55′N 104°52′W / 31.92° ჩ. გ. 104.87° დ. გ. / 31.92; -104.87 (Guadalupe Mountains)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 86,415.97 აკრი (349.7 kм²) This park has Guadalupe Peak, the highest point in Texas, the scenic McKittrick Canyon full of Bigtooth Maples, part of the Chihuahuan Desert, and a fossilized reef from the Permian.[33]
Haleakala Haleakala Crater.jpg ჰავაი
20°43′N 156°10′W / 20.72° ჩ. გ. 156.17° დ. გ. / 20.72; -156.17 (Haleakala)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 29,093.67 აკრი (117.7 kм²) The Haleakalā volcano on Maui has a very large crater with many cinder cones, Hosmer's Grove of alien trees, and the native Hawaiian Goose. The Kipahulu section has numerous pools with freshwater fish. This National Park has the greatest number of endangered species.[34]
Hawaii Volcanoes Puu Oo cropped.jpg ჰავაი
19°23′N 155°12′W / 19.38° ჩ. გ. 155.20° დ. გ. / 19.38; -155.20 (Hawaii Volcanoes)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 323,431.38 აკრი (1,308.9 kм²) This park on the Big Island protects the Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, two of the world's most active. Diverse ecosystems of the park range from those at sea level to 13,000 feet (4,000 м).[35]
Hot Springs Hots Springs National Park aerial.jpg არკანზასი
34°31′N 93°03′W / 34.51° ჩ. გ. 93.05° დ. გ. / 34.51; -93.05 (Hot Springs)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 5,549.75 აკრი (22.5 kм²) The only National Park in an urban area, this smallest National Park is based around the natural hot springs that have been managed for public use. Bathhouse Row preserves 47 of these with many beneficial minerals.[36]
Isle Royale IsleRoyalePlane.jpg მიჩიგანი
48°06′N 88°33′W / 48.10° ჩ. გ. 88.55° დ. გ. / 48.10; -88.55 (Isle Royale)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 571,790.11 აკრი (2,314.0 kм²) The largest island in Lake Superior and one of two parks not accessible by road, this least-visited park is a site of isolation and wilderness. It has many shipwrecks, waterways, and hiking trails. The park also includes over 400 smaller islands and the waters up to 4.5 миль (7.2 kм) from the island. There are only 20 mammal species and it is known for its wolf and moose relationship.[37]
Joshua Tree Joshua Tree - Rock formation in Real Hidden Valley 1.jpg კალიფორნია
33°47′N 115°54′W / 33.79° ჩ. გ. 115.90° დ. გ. / 33.79; -115.90 (Joshua Tree)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 789,745.47 აკრი (3,196.0 kм²) Covering parts of the Colorado and Mojave Deserts and the Little San Bernardino Mountains, this is the home of the Joshua tree. Across great elevation changes are sand dunes, dry lakes, rugged mountains, and granite monoliths.[38]
Katmai Brown bears brooks falls.jpg ალასკა
58°30′N 155°00′W / 58.50° ჩ. გ. 155.00° დ. გ. / 58.50; -155.00 (Katmai)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 3,674,529.68 აკრი (14,870.3 kм²) This park on the Alaska Peninsula protects the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, an ash flow formed by the 1912 eruption of Novarupta, as well as Mount Katmai. Over 2,000 brown bears come here to catch spawning salmon.[39]
Kenai Fjords Exit Glacier Jul09.JPG ალასკა
59°55′N 149°39′W / 59.92° ჩ. გ. 149.65° დ. გ. / 59.92; -149.65 (Kenai Fjords)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 669,982.99 აკრი (2,711.3 kм²) Near Seward on the Kenai Peninsula, this park protects the Harding Icefield and at least 38 glaciers and fjords stemming from it. The only area accessible to the public by road is Exit Glacier, while the rest can only be viewed by boat tours.[40]
Kings Canyon ParadiseValley.JPG კალიფორნია
36°48′N 118°33′W / 36.80° ჩ. გ. 118.55° დ. გ. / 36.80; -118.55 (Kings Canyon)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 461,901.20 აკრი (1,869.2 kм²) Home to several Giant sequoia groves and the General Grant Tree, the world's second largest, this park also has part of the Kings River, site of the granite Kings Canyon, and San Joaquin River, as well as the Boyden Cave.[41]
Kobuk Valley Agie River.jpg ალასკა
67°33′N 159°17′W / 67.55° ჩ. გ. 159.28° დ. გ. / 67.55; -159.28 (Kobuk Valley)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 1,750,716.50 აკრი (7,084.9 kм²) Kobuk Valley has 61 миль (98 kм) of the Kobuk River and three regions of sand dunes. Created by glaciers, the Great Kobuk, the Little Kobuk, and the Hunt River Sand Dunes can reach 100 feet (30 м) high and [convert: bug, ask for help], and they are the largest dunes in the arctic. Twice a year, half a million caribou migrate through the dunes and across river bluffs that contain ice age fossils. This is the least-visited National Park.[42]
Lake Clark Lake Clark National Park.jpg ალასკა
60°58′N 153°25′W / 60.97° ჩ. გ. 153.42° დ. გ. / 60.97; -153.42 (Lake Clark)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 2,619,733.21 აკრი (10,601.7 kм²) The region around Lake Clark has four active volcanoes, including Mount Redoubt, rivers, glaciers, and waterfalls. There are temperate rainforests, a tundra plateau, and three mountain ranges.[43]
Lassen Volcanic Cinder-cone-from-behind-Snag-Lassen.jpg კალიფორნია
40°29′N 121°31′W / 40.49° ჩ. გ. 121.51° დ. გ. / 40.49; -121.51 (Lassen Volcanic)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 106,372.36 აკრი (430.5 kм²) Lassen Peak, the largest plug dome volcano in the world, is joined by all three other types of volcanoes in this park: shield, cinder dome, and composite. Other than the volcano, which last erupted in 1915, the park has hydrothermal areas, including fumaroles, boiling pools, and steaming ground, heated by molten rock under the peak.[44]
Mammoth Cave Mammoth Cave National Park 007.jpg კენტუკი
37°11′N 86°06′W / 37.18° ჩ. გ. 86.10° დ. გ. / 37.18; -86.10 (Mammoth Cave)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 52,830.19 აკრი (213.8 kм²) With 365 миль (587 kм) of passageways mapped, Mammoth Cave is by far the longest cave system in the world. Cave animals include five bat species, the Kentucky cave shrimp, cave fish, and cave salamanders. Above ground there are rivers, hiking trails, sinkholes, and springs.[45]
Mesa Verde Mesa Verde National Park Cliff Palace Right Part 2006 09 12.jpg კოლორადო
37°11′N 108°29′W / 37.18° ჩ. გ. 108.49° დ. გ. / 37.18; -108.49 (Mesa Verde)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 52,121.93 აკრი (210.9 kм²) This area has over 4,000 archaeological sites of the Ancestral Pueblo, who lived here for 700 years. Cliff dwellings built in the 12th and 13th centuries include Cliff Palace, which has 150 rooms and 23 kivas, and the Balcony House, with passages and tunnels.[46]
Mount Rainier Mount Rainier from west.jpg ვაშინგტონი
46°51′N 121°45′W / 46.85° ჩ. გ. 121.75° დ. გ. / 46.85; -121.75 (Mount Rainier)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 235,625.00 აკრი (953.5 kм²) Mount Rainier, an active volcano, is the most prominent peak in the Cascades, and it is covered by 26 named glaciers including Carbon Glacier and Emmons Glacier, the largest in the continental United States. The mountain is popular for climbing, and more than half of the park is covered by subalpine and alpine forests. Paradise on the south slope is one of the snowiest places in the world, and the Longmire visitor center is the start of the Wonderland Trail, which encircles the mountain.[47]
North Cascades Thornton Lakes 25932.JPG ვაშინგტონი
48°42′N 121°12′W / 48.70° ჩ. გ. 121.20° დ. გ. / 48.70; -121.20 (North Cascades)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 504,780.94 აკრი (2,042.8 kм²) This complex includes the two units of the National Park and the Ross Lake and Lake Chelan National Recreation Areas. There are numerous glaciers, and popular hiking and climbing areas are Cascade Pass, Mount Shuksan, Mount Triumph, and Eldorado Peak.[48]
Olympic Acer macrophyllum in Hoh Rain Forest.jpg ვაშინგტონი
47°58′N 123°30′W / 47.97° ჩ. გ. 123.50° დ. გ. / 47.97; -123.50 (Olympic)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 922,650.86 აკრი (3,733.8 kм²) Situated on the Olympic Peninsula, this park ranges from Pacific shoreline with tide pools to temperate rainforests to Mount Olympus. The glaciated Olympic Mountains overlook the Hoh Rain Forest and Quinault Rain Forest, the wettest area of the continental United States.[49]
Petrified Forest PAINTED DESERT BADLANDS.jpg არიზონა
35°04′N 109°47′W / 35.07° ჩ. გ. 109.78° დ. გ. / 35.07; -109.78 (Petrified Forest)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 93,532.57 აკრი (378.5 kм²) This portion of the Chinle Formation has a great concentration of 225-million-year-old petrified wood. The surrounding region, the Painted Desert, has eroded red-hued volcanic rock called bentonite. There are also dinosaur fossils and over 350 Native American sites.[50]
Redwood Redwood National Park, fog in the forest.jpg კალიფორნია
41°18′N 124°00′W / 41.30° ჩ. გ. 124.00° დ. გ. / 41.30; -124.00 (Redwood)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 112,512.05 აკრი (455.3 kм²) This park and the co-managed state parks protect almost half of all remaining Coastal Redwoods, the tallest trees on Earth. There are three large river systems in this very seismically active area, and the 37 миль (60 kм) of protected coastline have tide pools and seastacks. The prairie, estuary, coast, river, and forest ecosystems have varied animal and plant species.[51]
Rocky Mountain Bierstadt Lake, Rocky Mountain National Park, USA.jpg კოლორადო
40°24′N 105°35′W / 40.40° ჩ. გ. 105.58° დ. გ. / 40.40; -105.58 (Rocky Mountain)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 265,828.41 აკრი (1,075.8 kм²) This section of the Rocky Mountains has ecosystems varying in elevation from the over 150 riparian lakes to Montane and subalpine forests to the alpine tundra. Large wildlife including mule deer, bighorn sheep, black bears, and cougars inhabit these igneous mountains and glacier valleys. The fourteener Longs Peak and Bear Lake are popular destinations.[52]
Saguaro Saguaronationalparl17102008.jpg არიზონა
32°15′N 110°30′W / 32.25° ჩ. გ. 110.50° დ. გ. / 32.25; -110.50 (Saguaro)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 91,439.71 აკრი (370.0 kм²) Split into the separate Rincon Mountain and Tucson Mountain Districts, the dry Sonoran Desert is still home to much life in six biotic communities. Beyond the namesake Giant Saguaro cacti, there are barrel cacti, cholla cacti, and prickly pears, as well as Lesser Long-nosed Bats, Spotted Owls, and javelinas.[53]
Sequoia Giant Forest.jpg კალიფორნია
36°26′N 118°41′W / 36.43° ჩ. გ. 118.68° დ. გ. / 36.43; -118.68 (Sequoia)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 404,051.17 აკრი (1,635.1 kм²) This park protects the Giant Forest, which has the world's largest tree, General Sherman, as well as four of the next nine. It also has over 240 caves, the tallest mountain in the lower 48, Mount Whitney, and the granite dome Moro Rock.[54]
Shenandoah Dark Hollow Falls Shenandoah NP 2007.jpg ვირჯინია
38°32′N 78°21′W / 38.53° ჩ. გ. 78.35° დ. გ. / 38.53; -78.35 (Shenandoah)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 199,045.23 აკრი (805.5 kм²) Shenandoah's Blue Ridge Mountains are covered by hardwood forests that are home to tens of thousands of animals. The Skyline Drive and Appalachian Trail run the entire length of this narrow park that has more than 500 миль (800 kм) of hiking trails along scenic overlooks and waterfalls of the Shenandoah River.[55]
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt National Park.jpg ჩრდილოეთი დაკოტა
46°58′N 103°27′W / 46.97° ჩ. გ. 103.45° დ. გ. / 46.97; -103.45 (Theodore Roosevelt)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 70,446.89 აკრი (285.1 kм²) This region that enticed and influenced President Theodore Roosevelt is now a park of three units in the badlands. Besides Roosevelt's historic cabin, there are scenic drives and backcountry hiking opportunities. Wildlife includes American Bison, pronghorns, Bighorn sheep, and wild horses.[56]
Virgin Islands St John Trunk Bay 1.jpg ვირჯინია
18°20′N 64°44′W / 18.33° ჩ. გ. 64.73° დ. გ. / 18.33; -64.73 (Virgin Islands)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 14,688.87 აკრი (59.4 kм²) The island of Saint John has rich human and natural history. There are Taino archaeological sites and ruins of sugar plantations from Columbus's time. Past the pristine beaches are mangroves, seagrass beds, coral reefs and algal plains.[57]
Voyageurs Voyageurs National Park.jpg მინესოტა
48°30′N 92°53′W / 48.50° ჩ. გ. 92.88° დ. გ. / 48.50; -92.88 (Voyageurs)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 218,200.17 აკრი (883.0 kм²) This park on four main lakes, a site for canoeing, kayaking, and fishing, has a history of Ojibwe Native Americans, French fur traders called voyageurs, and a gold rush. Formed by glaciers, this region has tall bluffs, rock gardens, islands and bays, and historic buildings.[58]
Wind Cave Wind Cave lower.jpg სამხრეთი დაკოტა
43°34′N 103°29′W / 43.57° ჩ. გ. 103.48° დ. გ. / 43.57; -103.48 (Wind Cave)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 28,295.03 აკრი (114.5 kм²) Wind Cave is distinctive for its calcite fin formations called boxwork and needle-like growths called frostwork. The cave, which was discovered by the sound of wind coming from a hole in the ground, is the world's densest cave system. Above ground is a mixed-grass prairie with animals such as bison, black-footed ferrets, and prairie dogs.[59]
Wrangell – St. Elias MountJarvis.jpg ალასკა
61°00′N 142°00′W / 61.00° ჩ. გ. 142.00° დ. გ. / 61.00; -142.00 (Wrangell – St. Elias)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 8,323,147.59 აკრი (33,682.6 kм²) This mountainous land has the convergence of the Alaska, Chugach, and Wrangell-Saint Elias Ranges, which have many of the continent's tallest mountains over 16,000 feet (4,900 м), including Mount Saint Elias. More than 25% of this park of volcanic peaks is covered with glaciers, including the tidewater Hubbard Glacier, piedmont Malaspina Glacier, and valley Nabesna Glacier.[60]
Yellowstone Grand Prismatic Spring and Midway Geyser Basin from above.jpg ვაიომინგი, მონტანა, აიდაჰო
44°36′N 110°30′W / 44.60° ჩ. გ. 110.50° დ. გ. / 44.60; -110.50 (Yellowstone)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 2,219,790.71 აკრი (8,983.2 kм²) Situated on the Yellowstone Caldera, the first national park in the world has vast geothermal areas such as hot springs and geysers, the best-known being Old Faithful and Grand Prismatic Spring. The yellow-hued Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River has numerous waterfalls, and four mountain ranges run through the park. There are almost 60 mammal species, including the gray wolf, grizzly bear, lynx, bison, and elk.[61]
Yosemite YosemitePark2 amk.jpg კალიფორნია
37°50′N 119°30′W / 37.83° ჩ. გ. 119.50° დ. გ. / 37.83; -119.50 (Yosemite)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 761,266.19 აკრი (3,080.7 kм²) Yosemite has towering cliffs, waterfalls, and sequoias in a diverse area of geology and hydrology. Half Dome and El Capitan rise from the central glacier-formed Yosemite Valley, as does Yosemite Falls, North America's tallest waterfall. Three Giant Sequoia groves and vast wilderness are home to diverse wildlife.[62]
ზიონი Zion angels landing view.jpg იუტა
37°18′N 113°03′W / 37.30° ჩ. გ. 113.05° დ. გ. / 37.30; -113.05 (Zion)
Error in Template:Dts: days must be an integer between 1 and 31 146,597.60 აკრი (593.3 kм²) This geologically unique area has colorful sandstone canyons, high plateaus, and rock towers. Natural arches and exposed formations of the Colorado Plateau make up a large wilderness of four ecosystems.[63]

იხილეთ აგრეთვე[რედაქტირება | წყაროს რედაქტირება]

წყაროები[რედაქტირება | წყაროს რედაქტირება]

  1. ეროვნული პარკების სამსახურის ორგანული აქტი. ეროვნული პარკების სამსახური (26 თებერვალი 2008). წაკითხვის თარიღი: 25 იანვარი 2010.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 The National Parks: Index 2005–2007 (PDF), Washington, D.C.: National Park Service. ISBN 9780912627755. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 19 March 2010. 
  3. 10 ყველაზე მეტად მონახული ეროვნული პარკები (2008) (PDF). ეროვნული პარკების სამსახური. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 25 იანვარი 2010.
  4. მსოფლიო მემკვიდრეობსი სია. იუნესკოს მსოფლიო მემკვიდრეობის ცენტრი. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 6 თებერვალი 2010.
  5. National Park System Areas Listed in Chronological Order of Date Authorized under DOI (PDF). ეროვნული პარკების სამსახური (27 ივნისი 2005). წაკითხვის თარიღი: 18 იანვარი 2010.
  6. Acadia National Park. ეროვნული პარკების სამსახური. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 მარტი 2010.
  7. National Park of American Samoa. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  8. Arches National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  9. Badlands National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  10. Big Bend National Park. National Park Service (December 08, 2009).
  11. Biscayne National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  12. Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  13. Bryce Canyon National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  14. Canyonlands National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  15. Capitol Reef National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  16. Carlsbad Caverns National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  17. Channel Islands National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  18. Congaree National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  19. Crater Lake National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  20. Cuyahoga Valley National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  21. Death Valley National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  22. Denali National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  23. Dry Tortugas National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  24. Everglades National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  25. Gates of the Arctic National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  26. Glacier National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  27. Glacier Bay National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  28. Grand Canyon National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  29. Grand Teton National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  30. Great Basin National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  31. Great Sand Dunes National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  32. Great Smoky Mountains National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  33. Guadalupe Mountains National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  34. Haleakala National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  35. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  36. Hot Springs National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  37. Isle Royale National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  38. Joshua Tree National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  39. Katmai National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  40. Kenai Fjords National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  41. Kings Canyon National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  42. Kobuk Valley National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  43. Lake Clark National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  44. Lassen Volcanic National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  45. Mammoth Cave National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  46. Mesa Verde National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  47. Mount Rainier National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  48. North Cascades National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  49. Olympic National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  50. Petrified Forest National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  51. Redwood National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  52. Rocky Mountain National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  53. Saguaro National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  54. Sequoia National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  55. Shenandoah National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  56. Theodore Roosevelt National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  57. Virgin Islands National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  58. Voyageurs National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  59. Wind Cave National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  60. Wrangell – St. Elias National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  61. Yellowstone National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  62. Yosemite National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.
  63. Zion National Park. National Park Service. წაკითხვის თარიღი: 23 March 2010.

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